2 edition of influence of pitch quality on anode carbon gasification found in the catalog.
influence of pitch quality on anode carbon gasification
Written in English
Thesis (Ph.D.) -Loughborough University of Technology, 1994.
|Statement||by Khadam Hussain.|
aluminum industry, which consumes ib of anode carbon per ib of aluminum produced. The anodes are typically made by blending % hot pitch with a carbonaceous filler (petroleum coke or pitch coke) and heating to a solid graphitized mass. The anodes are continuously consumed, so the industry needs a steady supply of good-quality pitch and. The key mechanisms in porosity development are associated with carbon gasification by the emitted and the oxygen contained in the alkali. 17 18 During heat-treatment of the pitch impregnated with KOH, the release of from formed in the treatment becomes significant at .
With the above, the combustion reactions are essentially carried out to completion under normal gasification operating conditions. And, under the condition of high carbon conversion, the three heterogeneous reactions (reactions 4 to 6) can be reduced to two homogeneous gas phase reactions of water-gas-shift and steam methane-reforming (reactions 7 and 8 below), which collectively play a key. Thesis by Sheralyn Marie Hume, published by R&D Carbon Ltd., ISBN The book “Influence of Raw Material Properties on the Reactivity of Carbon Anodes” contains the results of.
Carbon anodes, which are used in electrolytic cells to produce aluminum, are made of petroleum coke, rejected anodes, and butts (dry aggregate) and coal tar pitch (binder). Increasing anode quality helps decrease energy consumption, production cost as well as greenhouse gas emissions. All systems in this study assume a Conoco Philips gasifier and cold gas clean up conditions for the coal gasification system (Cases 3 and 4 in the NETL IGCC report). Four system arrangements, cases, are examined. Cases 1 and 2 remove the CO 2 after the SOFC anode.
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For the fuel carbon is solid, different gasification agents and the contact form between anode and solid carbon fuel also has an important influence on the reaction mechanism.
The contact forms are divided into three categories: no contact, direct physical contact and chemical contact (carbon deposited by alkane cracking) [ 13 ].Author: Chao Liu, Jiangge Pu, Xing Chen, Zheng Ma, Xiao Ding, Juan Zhou, Shaorong Wang.
The objective of this research is to investigate the gasification, in air and carbon dioxide, of anode carbons used in the aluminium industry, to identify any differences in the behaviour of filler coke and the coke from the coal-tar binder pitch, and to study the effect of pitch quality, especially the type and proportion of quinoline insolubles (QI) and the sodium content, on those processes Cited by: 1.
during the carbon anode production in aluminum industry because of their excellent binding properties. In general, the preparation of carbon anodes involve the following three steps: mixing calcined petroleum coke with recycled anodes and butts (all of which constitute the granular material) with the binder pitch to make an anode paste, vibro.
The influence of pitch quality on anode carbon gasification. By Khadam Hussain. Download PDF (4 MB) Abstract. A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy at Loughborough objective of this research is to investigate the gasification, in air and\ud carbon dioxide, of Author: Khadam Hussain.
Aluminium industry depends today on only the coal-tar-pitch as a binder to produce carbon anodes. However, it becomes difficult to secure a high-quality binder for the future needs of the aluminum industry as coal-tar-pitch is a non-renewable fossil : Asem Hussein, Ying Lu, Roozbeh Mollaabbasi, Jayson Tessier, Houshang Alamdari.
The Fischer formula predicted a carbon specific consumption of - kg.t-1 Al for baked carbon anodes with ppm to ppm of sodium content, showing that the sodium can cause relevant. The carbon anode scrap (hereinafter called “anode scrap”or“scrap”) is the remaining part of the carbon the carbon anode been used for the electrolytic aluminum plants about one is usually returned to the carbon anode production process after being cleaned surface, broken and gh the ash、CO 2 Reactivity and Air Reactivity of carbon anode will be.
Carbon anodes are made of calcined petroleum coke, recycled carbon materials (butts and anodes), and coal tar pitch. The pitch and coke properties strongly influence the anode quality.
High‐quality anodes help reduce the energy consumption and environmental emissions during the electrolysis.
pitch.1 Increased sodium content in coal tar pitch has an influence on faster air oxidation of anodes, but does not affect anode density and strength. Reactivity of coal tar pitch plays a significant role in the production of anodes. It is important that during the baking process the binder pitch liquid quickly converts into solid carbon phase of.
The ultrafine powder (> mesh) content of ball mill product has a great influence on the carbon anode quality. Experiments based on the aggregate recipe and raw material of an aluminum carbon anode plant in China have been conducted. The ultrafine powder was. The properties of coal tar pitches have changed more in the last eight years than in the previous Over the same period of time, the understanding of the influence of these properties on anodes has increased greatly.
The definition of a good-quality pitch for the manufacture of anodes for the primary aluminum industry has changed radically. Pitches that would have been rejected 15 years ago.
Good quality anodes decrease carbon and energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and increase anode production as well as anode life. Many factors such as quality of raw materials, anode recipe and operational parameters of different units (mixing, compacting and baking) affect anode properties, consequently, anode quality.
The reaction rate of min−1 at 50% of gasification, was obtained for pitch, which is similar to those of anode, coke and butt, suggesting that a pitch, baked separately, is not the most. In aluminum production, carbon anodes that are made of petroleum coke, coal tar pitch and recycled carbon materials are used to provide carbon required for the electrolysis process.
The anode quality directly affects not only the energy consumption andthe production cost but also the emission of greenhouse gases. The raw materials quality has a. Carbon pitch is an important raw material in the production process for aluminum and for the production of steel in electric arc furnaces.
The global aluminum industry uses carbon pitch as a binding agent in the formation of carbon anodes. The crystalline structure transformation of five carbon anodes during gasification in air and carbon dioxide was studied using quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM).
XRD analysis and HRTEM observations confirmed that anodes have a highly ordered graphitic structure. The examination of partially gasified samples indicated that. The combination of gasification and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) has the potential to improve efficiency and reduce emissions for fuels, such as coal and biomass.
Gasification syngas is a mix of fuel gases containing contaminants, such as sulfur and tar, which have the potential to cause degradation of the materials used in the anode of the SOFC. In this study, nickel–gadolinium-doped.
The anode was supplied with CO 2 for the purpose of carbon gasification and a protecting overvoltage was set during the gasification process to prevent cell performance deterioration. To the best of our knowledge, carbon dioxide in combination with protecting overvoltage has never been used for the purpose of carbon removal and the regeneration.
Net carbon consumption Anode plant capital costs Issues affecting the market today Overview Chinese carbon supply Product quality issues 2.
Use of Carbon Products in the Aluminium Production Process Introduction An odes Preb aked anodes Söderberg anodes Cathodes Summary 3. Green. Then laboratory scale anodes were produced with each individual calcined coke. These all-coke anodes were first evaluated for optimum pitch content. Then the anodes were baked over a range of temperatures ( to 1, C) in order to evaluate the influence of this heat treatment on anode.
Carbon anodes are an essential part of the primary aluminum production. They are made of coal tar pitch, calcined petroleum coke, recycled anodes and butts.
As pitch acts as a binder for the anode, its proper distribution in a green anode has a great impact on the properties of the baked anode. Information on cracks in anodes is important for the quality of the baked anode.
Thesis by Sheralyn Marie Hume, published by R&D Carbon Ltd., ISBN The book “Influence of Raw Material Properties on the Reactivity of Carbon Anodes. ALAN TOMSETT, PhD, is Technical Director for the Pacific Technology Center, Pacific Aluminum, where he provides technical support and advice to the Pacific Aluminum smelters.
Dr. Tomsett has more than twenty-five years of experience in carbon anode and cathode technology. JOHN JOHNSON, MS, heads his own consulting business. He has forty-two years of experience in the .